你好! Today we're taking a quick look at some common honorifics!
Okay, so what is an honorific? Basically, what we'd say in English would be "sir," "madam," "miss," etcetera. While Chinese also has titles for "teacher," "doctor," and their ilk, I'll focus on more general ones today.
先生 xiān shēng , literally "first born," is in practice an equivalent for "Mr.," or "sir." How do you use it? Place it /after/ the surname, so if you're talking to someone with the surname 王 wáng, you'd say 王先生.
So, there are more ways to address a woman than there are to commonly address a man. 小姐 xiǎo jiě is basically the equivalent of "miss." It's used for a young, unmarried girl. Some preliminary research indicates to me that it's a pretty close equivalent to that English -- for example, you might use it in a restaurant calling down a waitress as well as to a young woman.
太太 tài tai is literally "wife," in one translation, but for this purpose it's closer to "Mrs.," or "madam." Just to reiterate: You're referring to a married woman whose (married) last name is 张 zhāng. She's called 张太太. Oh, and by the way, you'd use 太太 in familial or personal contexts... you might want to go with 女士 (nǚ shì) for a more formal context.
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